Electrical Substations play a disproportionately large role in the overall power system reliability. Designers must balance technical performance with cost, whilst still considering maintainability and availability to keep the overall lifecycle cost low. The design complexity is compounded by a multiplicity of switching configurations, and evolving switchgear technologies. The workshop not only provides theory and examples but also practical insights from projects and technology management. Focus is given to understanding where standards originate from and their correct application, and indeed when it may be necessary to deviate from standards. The material aims to demystify some of the confusion and contradictions by explaining why certain selections are made and the criteria they depend upon.