The topic of Earthing is full of seeming contradictions, and best practices are often perceived as mysterious – more of an art than a science. Earthing systems are critical for human and plant safety, but there is a tremendous scope for cost savings through design optimization whilst still meeting technical criteria. A life cycle cost minimization approach is detailed to release significant savings. Earthing systems must also be designed for various conditions, from lightning to power frequency faults, and an integrated approach for safety and electromagnetic compatibility is presented. Effective solutions for the eradication of copper theft are presented.